Looking still more closely at the distribution of P303 sub-clades, some distinct patterns emerge in the network (Figure 4). Ann Hum Genet 2008; 72: 205214. A plot of the sub-clades included in the principal component analysis (Figure 3b) indicates that the clustering of the populations from NW Caucasus is due to their U1* frequency, whereas L497 lineages account for the separation of central Europeans.  Haplogroup G-M201 is believed to have been relatively absent during Neolithic India; the frequencies of the G2a-P15 subclade for example was negligible in indigenous Indian populations. Russ J Genet 2004; 40: 326331. Although the low frequency of hg G1-M285 makes it impractical to justify displaying a spatial frequency map, it is found (Supplementary Table S1) in the Near/Middle East including Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf region, as well as Iran and the South Caucasus (mostly Armenians). The corresponding coalescent estimate for M377 is 5600 years ago (Supplementary Table S4). The coalescent times (Td) of various haplogroups were estimated using the ASDo methodology described by Zhivotovsky et al,32 modified according to Sengupta et al.13 We used the evolutionary effective mutation rate of 6.9 104 per 25 years, as pedigree rates are arguably only pertinent to shallow rooted familial pedigrees,33 as they do not consider the evolutionary consequences of population dynamics including the rapid extinction of newly appearing microsatellite alleles. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 694704. Although compared with G1-M285, the phylogenetic level of P303 (Figure 1) is shallower but its geographic spread zone covers the whole hg G distribution area (Figure 2b). This video explains the migration route of Y-chromosome haplogroup G and the countries where it can be found today. A subset of 693 samples was typed for short tandem repeats of Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) using the 17 STR markers in the Applied Biosystems AmpFlSTR Yfiler Kit according to manufacturer recommendations. Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ et al. In Lebanon, however, G accounts for 6.5% of the population and in Iran to around 10%. Haplogroup G men who belong to this group, but are negative for all G2a subclades, are uncommon in Europe but may represent a sizeable group in so far poorly tested areas east of Turkey. Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G et al. Spallanzani, Universit di Pavia, Pavia, Italy, Viola Grugni,Vincenza Battaglia,Carmela Nici,Francesca Crobu,Sena Karachanak,Baharak Hooshiar Kashani&Ornella Semino, Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran, Istituto di Genetica Molecolare Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia, Italy, Centro Interdipartimentale Studi di Genere, Universit di Pavia, Pavia, Italy, Unit Mixte de Recherche 6578, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and Etablissement Franais du Sang, Biocultural Anthropology, Medical Faculty, Universit de la Mditerrane, Marseille, France, Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn, Estonia, Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA, You can also search for this author in Hammer MF, Behar DM, Karafet TM et al. In contrast, the only U1 representative in Europe is the G-M527 lineage whose distribution pattern is consistent with regions of Greek colonization. (Behar et al., 2012b) Origin Most researchers consider the birthplace of G to have been born in East Asia. The members of G-PF3359 are probably smaller in number than men included in G-P303, but only a small amount of testing has occurred for the relevant mutations. Among Turkish males 11% of the population is G. In Iran, Haplogroup G reaches 13 to 15% of the population in various parts of the country. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108: 1825518259. Thank you for visiting nature.com. Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ : Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration. In human genetics, Haplogroup G-P303 ( G2a2b2a,  formerly G2a3b1) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective. PLoS One 2011; 6: e17548.  Among the samples in the YHRD database from the southern Caucasus countries, 29% of the samples from Abazinia, 31% from Georgia, 2% from Azerbaijan and 18% from Armenia appear to be G samples. Eur J Hum Genet 2008; 16: 374386. There were only a few G categories until 2008 when major revisions to categories were made. Ashkenazi Jewish G2a1a men with northeastern European ancestry form a distinct cluster based on STR marker values. To accommodate for variability in sample sizes and hg G content, haplogroup diversity was calculated using the method of Nei37 only in the 52 instances when total population sample size exceeded 50 individuals and 5hg G chromosomes were observed. Kharkov VN, Stepanov VA, Borinskaya SA et al. (2004) suggested the mutation took place only 9,500 years ago. There are additional subclades of DYS388=13 men characterized by the presence of specific SNPs or uncommon STR marker oddities. In descending order, G-P303 is additionally a branch of G2 (P287), G2a (P15), G2a2, G2a2b, G2a2b2, and finally G2a2b2a. ", Previously the National Geographic Society placed its origins in the Middle East 30,000 years ago and presumes that people carrying the haplogroup took part in the spread of the Neolithic. In 2012, SNPs with the Z designation as first identified by citizen researchers from 1000 Genomes Project data began to appear. Hg G also occurs at frequencies ranging from 5 to 15% in both the rest of Near/Middle East and southern European countries (especially Italy and Greece), with a decreasing frequency gradient towards the Balkans and northern Europe. Men from the Caucasus and men from eastern Europe also form distinctive STR clusters. G-M406* (G2a2b1*; previously G2a3a*) and its subclades seem most commonly found in Turkey and the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean where it can constitute up to 5% of all makes and 50% of haplogroup G samples. Concerning the presence of hg G in the Caucasus, one of its distinguishing features is lower haplogroup diversity in numerous populations (Supplementary Table S1) compared with Anatolia and Armenia, implying that hg G is intrusive in the Caucasus rather than autochthonous. G2a3a-M406 has a modest presence in Thessaly and the Peloponnese (4%),10 areas of the initial Greek Neolithic settlements. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 10231034. Distribution. The formula for the coalescence calculations is as follows: Age=25/1000 ASD0/0.00069. Haplogroup G2a2b is a rare group today in Europe. G2a2b1 is more common in southern Europe than northern Europe. G-M377, now also known as G2b1, has previously been designated G2b and G2c.  These classifications are based on shared SNP mutations. Distribution. The presence of the SNP P18 mutation characterizes G2a1a's only subclade, G2a1a. Origin and Migrations of Haplogroup G-M201 The first man to carry haplogroup G-M201 likely lived in southwestern Asia or the Caucasus between 46,000 and 54,000 years ago. It is one of two branches of the parent haplogroup GHIJK, the other being HIJK . The hg G-U1 subclade is characterized by several sub-clusters of haplotypes, including a more diverse cluster mostly represented by Caucasus populations. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was carried out to assess the presence/absence of clines regarding informative G sub-haplogroups. The 96 populations were collapsed into 50 regionally defined populations by excluding populations where the total G count was less than n=5. The Iceman belongs to haplogroup G2a2b  (earlier called G2a4). The North Ossetians in the mid northern Caucasus area of Russia belong overwhelmingly to the G2a1 subclade based on available samples. International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Haplogroup_G-M201&oldid=1139571590, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, All articles with bare URLs for citations, Articles with bare URLs for citations from April 2022, Articles with spreadsheet file bare URLs for citations, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with self-published sources from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2022, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February 2021, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, M201, PF2957, L116, L154, L204, L240, L269, L402, L520, L521, L522, L523, L605, L769, L770, L836, L837, M201, P257/U6, Page94/U17, U2, U3, U7, U12, U20, U21, U23, U33, Other males purported to be members of Haplogroup G include: German-American pioneer and soldier, This page was last edited on 15 February 2023, at 20:17. Because M201 was identified first, it is the standard SNP test used when testing for G persons. Herein . A high percentage of G-Z1903 men belong to its subclade, G-Z724. In addition, we introduce five new markers: M426, M461, M485, M527 and M547 (Supplementary Table S2). The most commonly occurring subclades are G1* (M285) and many subclades of G2 (G-P287), especially: G2a (P15), G2a1 (G-FGC7535, formerly G-L293), G2a2b2a (G-P303) formerly G2a3b1); G2a2b1 (G-M406) formerly G2a3a; G2a2b2a1 (G-L140) formerly G2a3b1a; G2a2b2a1a1b (G-L497) formerly G2a3b1a2; G2a2b2a1a1a1 (G-L13) formerly G2a3b1a1a; G2a2b2a1a1c1a (G-CTS5990 or G-Z1903) formerly G2a3b1a3; G2b (G-M3115) and; G2b1 (G-M377), formerly G2b. The G-P303 phylogenetic network was constructed using 248 G2a3b-P303-derived 19-locus haplotypes from populations representing Europe, Middle/Near East, South/Central Asia and the Caucasus and belonging to five sub-clades P303*, U1, M527, M426 and L497. The coalescence age estimate of 9400 years for P16 coincides with the early Holocene (Supplementary Table S4). Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative, European Journal of Human Genetics (2021), European Journal of Human Genetics (2020), European Journal of Human Genetics (Eur J Hum Genet) The mutation is found on the Y chromosome at 10595022 and is a change from G to C. G-L30 (also G-PF3267, G-S126 or G-U8; G2a2b, previously G2a3) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108: 97889791. Hum Hered 2006; 61: 132143. Am J Hum Genet 2012; 90: 573. Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content: Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Mol Biol Evol 2011; 29: 359365. Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome Variation Provides Evidence for a Recent Common Ancestry between Native Americans and Indigenous Altaians. Categories have alternating letters and numbers. Age: About 7,800 years ago Origin: Eurasia Y-Haplotree. The Y-chromosomal haplogroup G (hg G) is currently defined as one of the 20 standard haplogroups comprising the global Y-chromosome phylogeny.1 The phylogeographic demarcation zone of hg G is largely restricted to populations of the Caucasus and the Near/Middle East and southern Europe. Haplogroup F is the parent of haplogroups from G to R; however excluding these common haplogroups, the minor clades F*, F1, and F2, seem to appear in the Indian continent . Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2. Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography. Capelli C, Brisighelli F, Scarnicci F et al. BMC Evol Biol 2011; 11: 69. The G-M286 subclade (M286+) is small compared with G-L91. Semino et al. Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R et al. The Madjar and Argyn tribes (or clans) of Kazakhstan were found to possess the highest levels of G-M201 among any modern ethnic group. Martinez L, Underhill PA, Zhivotovsky LA et al. Mol Biol Evol 2011; 28: 29052920. New insights into the Tyrolean Icemans origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing. Almost all haplogroup G1 persons have the value of 12 at short tandem repeat (STR) marker DYS392 and all will have the M285 or M342 SNP mutation which characterizes this group. Balanovsky O, Dibirova K, Dybo A et al. Y-STR haplotypes were used to construct phylogenetic networks for haplogroups G-P303, G-P16 and G-M377, using the program Network 22.214.171.124 (Fluxus-Engineering, Suffolk, England, UK) and applying the median-joining algorithm. Should any man with the P15 mutation test negative (ancestral) for any of these or vice versa, that finding would be the basis of a new G2a category. While neither knowledge of paleo-climate, archeology or genetic evidence from a single locus using modern populations provides an unimpeachable microcosm of pre-historical expansions, considering them together cautiously provides a contextual framework for discussion. Article Two additional markers, DYS38829, 30 and DYS46131 were typed separately. Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination. The M201 SNP mutation that characterizes haplogroup G was identified at Stanford University and was first reported in 2001. Summary. Science 2000; 290: 11551159.  The city is on the banks of the river Drava, which notably begins in the Tirol/Tyrol region of the Alps, another haplogroup G focus area in Europe. Genetic evidence concerning the origins of South and North Ossetians. Cinnioglu C, King R, Kivisild T et al. Mitochondrial DNA variation of modern Tuscans supports the near eastern origin of Etruscans. First, here is the only region with co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity of haplogroup G. This group was created for the folks who's paternal Y-DNA reflects they belong to haplogroup G2a (G-P15). The discovery of new SNPs can result in assignment of new names to haplogroup categories. Forensic Sci Int-Gen 2007; 1: 287290. The results were analyzed using the ABI PRISM program GeneMapper 4.0 (Applied Biosystems). In the G2a3b-P303 network (Figure 4), there are several region-specific clusters, indicating a considerable history for this SNP. In contrast to its widely dispersed sister clade defined by P303, hg G-M406 has a peak frequency in Cappadocia, Mediterranean Anatolia and Central Anatolia (67%) and it is not detected in most other regions with considerable P303 frequency. In contrast to G1, the absolute majority of hg G samples belonged to G2-P287-related sub-clades, with the vast majority of them being associated with G2a-P15-related lineages. Mol Biol Evol 2006; 23: 22682270. suggested that: "We estimate that the geographic origin of haplogroup G plausibly locates somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran. The second component, influenced by the relatively high presence of M377, separates Ashkenazi Jews from other populations (Figure 3a). Dulik MC, Osipova LP, Schurr TG : Y-chromosome variation in Altaian Kazakhs reveals a common paternal gene pool for Kazakhs and the influence of Mongolian expansions. So far the men positive for this have had Irish, English, Dutch, Lebanese and/or Turkish (Armenian surname) ancestry. Elizabeth T Wood, Daryn A Stover, Christopher Ehret, L177, later discarded in favour of PF3359 and equivalent SNPs, was first identified at. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2012.86, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2012.86. Its estimated Td of 120953000 years ago suggests considerable antiquity allowing time to accumulate STR diversity and also to disperse relatively widely. A separate study on the Argyns found that 71% of males belong to G1. The extreme rarity of G-M377 in northern Pakistan could indicate that G2b in this area originates outside the region and was brought there in the historic period, perhaps from further west (Pakistan was part of both the Achaemenid Persian Empire, conquered by Alexander the Great, and then formed a part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom). P287 was identified at the University of Arizona and became widely known in late 2007. Until 2008, new G SNPs were reported from labs at the University of Arizona (P designations), Stanford University (M designations) or the University of Central Florida (U designations). The Etruscans: a population-genetic study. Beginning in 2008, additional G SNPs were identified at Family Tree DNA (L designations) and Ethnoancestry (S designations). Haplogroup G ( M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup. Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study. This is achieved by comparing the haplotypes through the STR markers. G-M201 is most commonly found among various ethnic groups of the Caucasus, but is also widely distributed at low frequencies among ethnic groups throughout Europe, South Asia, Central Asia, and North Africa. A more compact cluster of Near/Middle Eastern samples is also resolved in the network. P15 was identified at the University of Arizona and became widely known by 2002. In the Greek island of Crete, approximately 7% to 11% of males belong to haplogroup G. (2000) suggested 17,000 years ago. Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, Lin AA, Al-Zahery N, et al.